Given the period of chaos that follows immediately after a breach, and the long-term ramifications, responding to an event without a plan is like treating an amputated limb with plasters – messy and ineffective. The first few hours after a breach are critical in asserting control of the situation and, as such, businesses must have a comprehensive incident response plan in place that enables them to react immediately should the worst happen. Target has become the high profile case study of how not to handle a data breach. The retailer experienced a massive breach in 2013 which resulted in up to 40 million customer payment cards being compromised. The world learned about the breach from Brian Krebs, who broke the news on his blog after discovering stolen card details for sale on the dark web. In the days following, Target failed to communicate with banks about which payment cards were stolen, while customers were unable to reach the company due to a jammed customer service line. Consequently, Target’s share price fluctuated, both the CIO and CEO resigned, and the company estimates it has spent almost £200 million in relation to the breach.